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History Assignment on Ibn Khaldun


Ibn Khuldun was an Arab’s famous historiographer and historian of fourteenth century, while also known for his work for the modern sociology, historiography and economics[1]. Therefore, he is famous as a philosopher, historian, political scientist and sociologist[2]. Moreover, he is also writer of famous book Muqaddimah,which has been evaluated and appreciated by modern scholars as to study how it has influenced the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century and how it has affected the growth as well as decline of Ottoman Empire[3]. Concerning the significance of Ibn Khuldun due to his theories, concepts, and work, the paper aims to examine and analyze the role and importance of this man in the context of his position as philosopher, political scientist, and the establisher of sociology.  assignment writer

[1] (Hozien, 2011)

[2] (Fromherz, 2010)

[3] (Viguera, et al., 2006)

Ibn Khaldun – As a Philosopher

Ibn Khaldun is significantly recognized for his contribution in the philosophy, as his main contribution and chief concern of monumental work had been to acknowledge the facts related to psychology, economics, environment, and society that always played considerable role in the advancement of human historical development and human civilization[1]. As a philosopher, his contribution is associated with the analysis that he made about the dynamics of group relationship and the way group-feelings encourage the rise to up-coming civilization and political power[2]. His world famous book, theMuqaddimah, for its philosophical context has been identified as unique book encompassing the historical events from philosophical perspective, while addressing the events quite partially[3]. His view on all subjects that he studied had been observed as to incorporate the philosophical elements including science, history, law, and mathematics.

The significant contribution of Ibn Khaldun in the philosophy that attracted Muslim as well as western philosopher is the criteria for reasons that is made by using social and physical law rather than just relying on the scientific or social aspect of facts and events[4]. This unique approach of philosophy used by Ibn Khaldun made him the pioneer of modern philosophy. Moreover, it is also found that as a historian, his approach and view is analytically philosophical while he had also used critical approach in identifying the different human aspects through philosophical criteria[5]. His unique philosophical approach was also named as rational philosophy that aimed at arguing the historical and social perspective as universal events[6]. Therefore, due to his judging point of view for analyzing the history, and social philosophy, he was known as to disprove the conformist and traditional religious knowledge[7].

Being philosopher, his main contribution in terms of changing the approach has been observed from his perspectives on the metaphysical philosophy. He described the religion as the unifying factor in the progress and development of the society, while metaphysical philosophy was addressed as the knowledge of the beliefs that can be taken from the revelation[8]. Thus, his revolutionary and untraditional approach in addressing different social scientific aspects and use of philosophy as elemental factor in all social aspect identified him unique in the history. His main contribution in philosophical history and sociology has been marked as paramount due to influence of his theories, ideologies and concepts on the government and administration authorities of that time[9]. Among his all theories and philosophies, the most significant philosophy is about the force in the circles of different social as well as human sciences, which implies the rise and fall of states due to human collectivities[10]. 

[1] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[2] (Enan, 2007)

[3] (Knysh, 1999)

[4] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[5] (Hozien, 2011)

[6] (Enan, 2007)

[7] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[8] (Knysh, 1999)

[9] (Enan, 2007)

[10] (Fromherz, 2010)

Ibn Khaldun – As a Political Scientist

As a political scientist, Ibn Khaldun maintained similar exception and unique approach as he did as a philosopher. However, throughout his life and educational career, he has studied and contributed in numbers of fields for which he had been famous but he had been more famous for his political thoughts, concepts, and ideologies[1]. His political concepts and ideologies are more influenced by the political situation of his time, while his joining as Chancellery of the Tunisian ruler Ibn Tafrakin at early age also influenced his political thoughts[2]. His most of political thoughts are depicted from his writingMuqaddimah, first chapter introduction, in which he had discussed the political thoughts and concepts of that time through portrayal of historical events. His considerable quality is that he had discussed and incorporated the political thoughts along with society and its dynamics. Since Ibn Khaldun has regarded the nature of state and society as unifying and single entity, it had contributed in signifying the position of political thoughts of Ibn Khaldun and helped latter thinkers and political scientist to realize the importance of insightfulness and innovation that marked his political thoughts different from others.

Through his sociological, historical as well as philosophical approach, Ibn Khaldun has generated new idea of politics that aims to cross the traditional boundaries of political study that was taken into account as separate and limited perspective in past[3]. Moreover, his political approach as used in the first chapter inMuqaddimah introduction changed the traditional and conventional concept of political science and crated new standards for the historians to evaluate the accounts of past occurrences[4].

The major political concept of Khaldun that relates sociology with the political science signifies that society and politics are interconnected and that political affairs are as important as society itself[5]. His political thought that mainly revolves around the significance of society suggests that society is important and necessary for the existence of individuals and alone, individuals cannot satisfy their needs[6]. Similarly, the rise of state is due to the needs of individual that lies in the need of society as to satisfy the individuals’ needs to survive. Thus, his political concepts are not about the struggle of power but rather it is about that state arises through the needs of limiting the force to restrain the natural hostility of humanity[7]. Today, based on this political philosophy, Ibn Khaldun is regarded as father of sociology and political science. Moreover, his sociological philosophy about states in turn served to political philosophy that says that state cannot exist without society while societies cannot survive for long if there is no concept of state to govern or administer the laws and regulations. 

[1] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[2] (Viguera, et al., 2006)

[3] (Lacoste, 1984)

[4] (Fromherz, Ibn Khaldun: life and times 2010)

[5] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[6] (Viguera, et al., 2006)

[7] (Enan, 2007)

Ibn Khaldun – As an Establisher of Society

Ibn Khaldun is also known as an establisher of society due to his great contribution to sociology[1]. His fundamental concepts regarding sociology became the foundation of all his political, philosophical, and economic theories due to his main concentration on the society as the most essential part of human life[2]. The significance of his contribution in sociology can also be understood by the fact that his renowned book theMuqaddimahentails six different chapters about sociology in which different social aspects has been discussed including sociology of politics, sociology of urban life, sociology of economics, and sociology of knowledge[3]. In his writings and philosophy, Ibn Khaldun has signified the society as to the most influential elements that affect every individual factor. Moreover, his attitude to study the social phenomena has been immersed with the spirit, leading to thinkers and historians call him founder of sociology, as he had endeavored to create unique theoretical structure for social analysis[4].     

The social philosophy of Ibn Khaldun has served in many ways to understand the dynamics of society that emphasized that society is an organism and that society must obey the laws of the state[5]. This social theoretical concept has provided with the idea to understand the society and state as single unique entity, which takes human reasons as data and creates history from it. Ibn Khaldun in the context of contribution in sociology is not regarded as founder of sociology because he had identified and acknowledged different dynamics of society but because he had identified the importance of individuals as influential factor in history and social changes occurring in society[6]. 

[1] (Larson, 2010)

[2] (Schmidt, 1978)

[3] (Al-Azmeh, 2003)

[4] (Baali, 1988)

[5] (Schmidt, 1978)

[6] (Fromherz, 2010)


After examining and analyzing the contribution of Ibn Khaldun as philosopher, political scientist, and society establisher, it can be concluded that Ibn Khaldun has been very important figure in past and present for presenting unique theories and concept about society, politics, and philosophy. His greatness lies in the fact that he related the importance of society with other influential and dynamics factor in society. However, he received education in a traditional environment, yet his theories and concepts are different from the traditional approach adopted by contemporary historians, thinkers or philosopher. It is also found that his philosophical concepts and theories are more influenced by the situation of the time and the events that he experienced; however, this influence had not been manipulative in any way. Similarly, being a historian he did not follow the traditional approach of his contemporary historians and depicted historical events and developments from philosophical point of view, containing logical as well as factual reasons.

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